Naringin: Potential Anticancer Compound in Citrus Fruit for Various Health Benefits

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Naringin: Potential Anticancer Compound in Citrus Fruit for Various Health Benefits

The use of herbal medicine with the slogan "back to nature" is on the rise lately, but can everything in nature be effective in helping alleviate health problems experienced by humans?

Natural resources including herbs and their extracts have been used in traditional medicine for the treatment of many ailments. Today, people are returning to using original compounds from plants. Although currently developing synthetic drugs in the pharmaceutical industry, herbal medicine still has its own appeal to consumers, including cancer treatment.

Cancer is a serious disease that is very deadly throughout the world. Cancer does not just happen, but there are several processes that make cells and organs become cancerous because of the abnormal cell division that occurs continuously without stopping. Cancer is caused due to various factors such as exposure to chemicals, environment, dietary factors, and unhealthy living.

There are several cancer treatment options at this time, starting from surgery, radiation and chemotherapy, but all of them have positive and negative impacts depending on the severity of the cancer at the stage suffered by. The anticancer agent must be able to kill cancer cells without causing side effects to normal cells or healthy cells by means of apoptosis. Apoptosis itself is a cell death program that occurs normally when these cells are no longer needed by the body or it can also be due to the failure of cells to repair themselves because they are triggered by internal disorders. There are several drug candidates that meet these criteria, one of which is naringin.

A recent literature has revealed that naringin is a potential anticancer compound. Naringin is a polyphenol compound that is naturally found in oranges. Citrus plants are included in the Rutaceae family, which includes fruits such as lime, lemon, mandarin, and bali. Oranges are consumed primarily as fresh or raw material for juices or canned as a segment. In addition, citrus fruits can also be used in the food, beverage, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries such as additives, spices, cosmetic ingredients, and chemoprophylactic drugs.

Naringin also gives a bitter taste when we consume orange juice. Naringin concentrations were found to be higher when the fruit was young than when the fruit was ripe. Biologically naringin is a flavanone glycoside formed from two rhamnose units attached to its aglycone parts, namely naringenin and neohesperidose flavanones. Naringin has the molecular formula C27H32O14 and a molecular weight of 580.4 g / mol.

Naringin has been widely used as a research compound both in vitro and in vivo. Generally naringin is hydrolyzed to aglycon naringenin by oral lactasephlorizin hydrolase and intestinal microflora. Naringin is absorbed rapidly within the first 15 minutes to 3 hours after oral administration. Naringin is highly lipophilic and is spread to almost all organs of the body with the highest concentration in the stomach and the lowest in the brain. Naringin is also concentrated in the liver and bile by an active transport process.

Many studies have revealed that naringin is a potential anticancer compound in inhibiting the proliferation of cancer cells, including colon, pancreatic, stomach, breast, liver and lung cancers. Naringin is also reported to prevent the formation of new blood vessels at the metasatis stage of tumors and induce apoptosis in cancer cells. An in vivo study documented citrus fruits into powder (13.7 g / kg) or isolated naringin (200 mg / kg) was reported to suppress proliferation and increase apoptosis through anti-inflammatory activity. Naringin has also been shown to help suppress colon cancer development and inhibit the development of breast tumors induced by 5 mg of DMBA.

In conclusion, naringin is commonly found in citrus fruits and has been proven to have anticancer properties from in vitro and in vivo studies, however, further further trials such as clinical trials for future treatment are still needed.

Written by: Amaq Fadholly, Arif N. M. Ansori, and Teguh Hari Sucipto

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