Dengue Virus Epidemiology Study in Surabaya, Bogor, and Bangkalan

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Dengue Virus Epidemiology Study in Surabaya, Bogor, and Bangkalan

Dengue virus (DENV) is a virus transmitted by mosquitoes, transmitted by the vector mosquito Aedes sp. Infection with four serotypes of DENV-1 to 4. Indonesia, cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) were first discovered in 1968 in the cities of Jakarta and Surabaya. Indonesia annually has experienced around 100,000 cases of dengue fever (DF) and dengue hemorrhagic fever (DBD) which were reported in recent years. However, dengue virus epidemiological surveys (DENV) are still limited in this country. In Surabaya, the second largest city, a report shows that the dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) was the most dominant virus circulating in 2003-2005.

In 2007, we started DENV surveillance in Surabaya supported by the Japan Initiative for Global Research Network on Infectious Disease (J-GRID) program to establish the Indonesia-Kobe University Collaborative Research Center for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases (CRC-ERID). We found that the dominance of DENV shifted from type 2 to type 1 between October and November 2008. Another survey using mosquitoes caught in the wild in April 2009 confirmed that dengue virus type 1 (DENV-1) was the dominant type in Surabaya at that time. . Phylogenetic analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the complete envelope gene DENV-1 showed that all 22 selected isolates were included in genotype IV and 17 selected isolates were included in genotype I. Furthermore, in December 2010, the isolates were grouped into a new DENV-1 genotype I clade, showing a shift clade between September and December 2010.

From January 2011 to December 2011, only DENV-1 genotype IV was isolated, indicating that the genotype shift occurred again from GI to GIV. In January 2012, the GI and GIV strains began to circulate, which continued until June 2013. After July 2013, the DENV-1 strains were not isolated and replaced with DENV-2. In 2013, we also isolated the DENV-3 genotype I line which has the potential to cause endemic outbreaks in Surabaya. It is possible that DENV-3 is already forming in the population and will replace the currently circulating strains, leading to an increase in the incidence and number of severe dengue cases.

In 2014 in Bogor, we reported a DENV-1 genome sequence that was phylogenetically close to the plague strain in Japan. These findings suggest that the Southeast Asian region was the source of the original dengue outbreak in Japan in 2014. We consider the results of this study to be useful for a retrospective analysis of the dengue outbreak in Japan. In Japan at that time, as of 17 September 2014, a total of 131 cases had been confirmed. These are preliminary findings, along with public health response activity from the first documented autochthonous hemorrhagic fever outbreak in Japan in nearly 70 years.

On the other hand, in 2012-2014 we conducted a sample collection in Bangkalan. Previously, DHF cases in this city were reported to be higher than other cities in Madura Island based on data from the East Java Provincial Health Office in 2013. Seventeen samples from 359 blood samples (4.7%) were positive for DENV isolation. Serotype and phylogenetic analysis to reveal the dominance of DENV-1 genotype I (9/17, 52.9%), followed by DENV-2 type Cosmopolitan (7/17, 41.2%) and DENV-3 genotype I (1/17 , 5.9%). %). DENV-4 was not found. The virus transition pattern in Bangkalan was similar to that in Surabaya at that time. This suggests that the virus circulation in Surabaya and Bangkalan coincides as workers from Bangkalan commute to and from Surabaya. The serotype and genotype results in Surabaya and Bangkalan are similar to previous results in Indonesia, but especially in Bogor similar to Japan 2014. This study shows the importance of continuous virus surveillance in dengue endemic areas, to understand the dynamics of dengue fever infection in Indonesia.

Author: Soegeng Soegijanto, et al
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