ITD Unair Revealed The Potential Of This Plant To Be An Anti-HIV Drug, What Kind?

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ITD Unair Revealed The Potential Of This Plant To Be An Anti-HIV Drug, What Kind?

Researchers from the HIV Institute Tropical Disease (ITD) Universitas Airlangga studied the potential of Zingiberaceae, an endemic plant of Central Sulawesi, as a candidate for anti-HIV medicinal plants. This research is in collaboration with researchers from the Natural Ingredients Pharmacy Department of Pharmacy, Tadulako University (UNTAD) Palu.
This study is based on the fact of using drugs known as antiretrovirals (ARVs) for people who are infected with HIV or have AIDS. This drug has side effects if used for a long time.

HIV-1/AIDS Institute of Tropical Disease (ITD) researcher Siti Qamariyah Khairunisa said that the Tadulako University research team contributed to the extraction and characterization of compounds from Zingiberaceae.

Meanwhile, the research team from the ITD UNAIR HIV laboratory is the only laboratory in Indonesia that has isolates of the HIV virus, thus contributing to in-vitro anti-HIV testing.

ITD UNAIR HIV Laboratory also provides support in providing samples of HIV patients for research.

Zingiberaceae is a perennial herb that grows widely in subtropical and tropical climates in Asia and the Pacific. This plant is found in the Lore Lindu National Park (LLNP) area of ​​Central Sulawesi.

Topo Baria tribe has used it traditionally as medicine, food flavoring, and food wrapping.

“There are three endemic species of Zingiberaceae plants in Central Sulawesi, namely Alpinia eremochlamys K. Schum, Etlingera exuosa A.D. Poulsen, and Etlingera acanthoides A.D. Poulsen,” said Qamariyah in a written statement, Thursday (10/6/2021).

In Zingiberaceae plant research, it was found that the methanol extract of Alpinia galanga rhizome showed strong inhibitory activity on the replication of the HIV virus in the protease gene (PR).

19S-19Acetoxychavicol acetate isolated from Alpinia galanga was reported to be able to block transport in the Rev. (E) -Labda-8 (17), 12-diene-15,16-dial isolated from Alpinia zerumbet has the ability to inhibit HIV virus replication in the integrase gene.

“Zerumbone is the main compound of Zingiber zerumbet and Zingiber aromaticum which is also reported to be able to inhibit the replication of the HIV virus,” he said.

Qamariyah also revealed that anti-HIV candidates on medicinal plants Zingiberaceae, Alpinia eremochlamys, Etlingera exuosa, and Etlingera acanthoides were carried out in vitro in the HIV/AIDS laboratory at the Institute for Tropical Diseases, Airlangga University.

This test uses high standard laboratory facilities, namely Biosafety Laboratory Level 3 (BSL3).

“The stages include compound extraction, compound characterization, toxicity test and anti-HIV activity test using lymphocytes (T cells) and HIV virus isolated from HIV type 1 patients,” he said.

Based on the results of anti-virus screening, it showed that the ethanolic extract from the rhizomes of E. Acanthoides and A. Eremochlamys had the potential to inhibit the replication of the HIV-1 virus in MT-4 cells in vitro.

The rhizome of E. Acanthoides showed the best antiviral activity with the lowest IC50 value and toxicity level, and
the highest selectivity index among other anti-HIV candidates.

“The presence of terpenoid compounds such as zerumbone, ar-turmerone, caryophyllene, and caryophyllene oxide as well as several saturated and unsaturated fatty acids have the potential for antiviral activity,” he said

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